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Confronting the Quantum Enigma: Albert, Niels, and John (2011)
(Winner of the 2012 IPPY Award)

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Confronting the Quantum Enigma: Albert, Niels, and John is a nonfiction book that utilizes three fictional characters: Albert, Niels, and John as a vehicle to explore the nature of reality. Their alter Egos are: Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, and John Stewart Bell. The setting for the story is Princeton University in the year 2030. These three characters return from the grave to take up where they left off in their discussions on the meaning of quantum theory.

There are good reasons why the characters gather at Princeton University. Albert Einstein came to Princeton to work at the Institute of Advanced Studies and Palmer physics laboratory, now called First Campus Center, from 1933 till his death in 1955, and Niels Bohr often came to visit and study with Einstein during those years. In fact, the two had offices right next to each other in Fine Hall now called Jones Hall.

The reason for Albert, Niels, and John’s visit this time around is to take part in experiments designed at Princeton University in collaboration with NASA. The experiments are to test Bell’s theorem of inequality. Bell’s theorem, which he formulated in 1965, had since been proven in the laboratory to a distance of several miles and most physicists were, and still are, convinced of its validity, but there were always some skeptics including Albert himself. The new experiments about to be performed will take place between three space probes placed into position by NASA. The experiments are designed to once and for all validate Bell’s theorem of inequality to an infinite distance.

Bell’s theorem of inequality did not directly prove the concept of non-locality; rather, the theorem proved non-locality by invalidating alternative explanations. His theorem demonstrated that elementary particles have dynamic attributes that are solely determined by measurement or observation; thereby, showing that the measurement of one particle can instantaneously affect the attributes of another particle no matter how far they are separated in time and space. This in part is the Quantum Enigma.

The Quantum Enigma, as I have defined it, is an attempt to reconcile the dichotomy between the scientific data gathered during the quantum revolution with our experience of the natural world. These scientific findings suggest that: 1) The universe has no independent existence, but has come into being as a result of observation and interpretation by observers; 2) The wave nature of matter and energy is not a “real” physical wave, but rather, a probability wave; 3) The universe is acausal; that is, the ultimate reason for change and movement is chance and probability, not cause and effect; 4) The universe is holistic and non-local; the discreteness of matter and energy which we intuit is illusion. Though counter-intuitive, these statements have been verified by experiment and have survived intact for a century. After all, Quantum theory has been called the most successful theory in history.

During the twentieth century, Einstein and Bohr were at odds about the meaning of quantum theory. Both men contributed to the theory, but Einstein never fully accepted its implications. First and foremost, Einstein was a determinist—a product of the reductionist, mechanistic age. He believed in an objective reality independent of observation and he thought that change and motion were a result of cause and effect. On the other hand, Bohr and his colleagues, such as Werner Heisenberg, were indeterminists. They believed that nature reveals herself according to the type of experiment preformed and that the ultimate reason for change and movement is chance and probability— not cause and effect. Their formulation of reality became known as the Copenhagen interpretation of reality, and it is aptly defined by the following statement: No subatomic event is a real event until it is an observed event. Physicist John Wheeler, who coined the term “Black-Hole” and procured Einstein’s Chair at Princeton University, said, “Nothing is more important about Quantum Theory than this: it has destroyed the concept of a world as ‘sitting out there”’. In other words, reality in some sense is subjective.

The monumental battles between these two great friends and adversaries, Einstein and Bohr, commenced at the 1927 and 1930 Solvay conferences in Brussels, Belgium, and lasted until Einstein’s last breath in 1955. The insecure Bohr had tremendous respect for the mental powers of Einstein, and always feared that Einstein would overturn quantum theory with one blow. The same could not be said for Bohr’s colleagues however. These young revolutionaries had no fear of the great Einstein, because they knew that quantum theory was on solid ground.

Though Bohr greatly respected Einstein’s genius, he could not understand why Einstein was able to unite space and time, gravity and acceleration, and matter and energy, yet was unable to go one step further to unite the observer and the observed. Bohr became very frustrated with Einstein and considered Einstein to be stubborn. In the end, they barely talked to each other out of pure frustration, yet the love and respect was always there. It would take another lifetime for the fictional characters Albert, Niels, and John to attempt a unification of the observer and the observed. Did they succeed? Did their philosophies move further apart or did they merge? Read Confronting the Quantum Enigma to find out.


Crop Circles: A Message of Information and Meaning
An Investigator’s Guide

    This Book is Available at Arcstar Books on the MUFON website

  The Crop Circle phenomenon is an enigma that has seemingly defied explanation, in part, because the public has been duped into thinking that crop formations are all creations of artistic hoaxers, such as the infamous bar flies Doug Bower and Dave Chorley who publically professed to have created all of the formations with nothing more than a board, some rope, and a view finder attached to their hats. They must have been busy as crop formation appearances reached a peak of 250 per season in the 1990s with 15 formations appearing in one twenty-four hour period in southern England alone. Other explanations for the occurrence of crop formations border on the ridiculous, including dust devils, dancing fairies, satanic cults, spinning vortexes of ionized gases, moose or deer that have locked horns in a mating ritual, or hedgehogs in heat. When explanations for a phenomenon become more bizarre than the phenomenon itself, it is time to look to the obvious.

 I propose that crop circles, are in fact, messages from an alien civilization. This is not a novel proposition. After studying the phenomenon for over two decades, crop circle researcher and author Michael Glickman contends that those who believe that the entire phenomenon is a result of human creation have blindly disregarded the evidence pointing to an extraterrestrial involvement.

  No amount of time and effort has been spared by researchers in an attempt to analyze the message being conveyed by the “Circlemakers.” Many of their ideas are interesting and quite plausible, but there has been no real consensus. For the most part, I think that the analysis of the messages being left in the fields has been overly objectified and too narrowly focused. Through my research into the quantum world, a broader based hypothesis of the crop circle phenomenon has emerged leading me to the conclusion that the messages in the fields are connected to two universal principles—complementarity and meaning.

   Complementarity reflects the Buddhist and Taoist philosophy that nature is neither dualistic nor monistic, but rather a unity of opposing forces which the Chinese refer to as the ti and the t’ien. These forces, according to Chinese cosmology, are not simply a product of the universe as it exists today, but are responsible for the very creation of the universe and time itself. The Western notion of the dualities of mind and matter, determinism and indeterminism, and the observer and the observed are viewed from the Eastern perspective as merely the interplay of naturally self-organizing principles of the ti and the t’ien. The concept of complementarity is closely linked with the Buddhist and Monistic traditions embracing the philosophy that, in essence, the plurality of things is illusory. The attributes we ascribe to an entity are always in relation to something else not there; a relationship between foreground and background, between what is apparent and what is missing. Buddhists call this the theory of emptiness, asserting that any belief in an objective reality grounded in the assumption of intrinsic, independent existence is untenable. Nothing has independent existence. Isn’t this exactly what we behold when we see a crop formation? We are looking at what is absent in the fields.

   The meaning of meaning is a bit harder to describe. Physicist David Bohm (1917-1992) was one of the first physicists to put meaning into an “objective” context. Bohm is most noted for his idea of the undivided whole and the implicate order. Bohm’s idea, called the Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, maintains that there can be no distinction between the particle and the measuring instrument, or between objective science and subjective human experience. His philosophy, a mixture of modern physics, Buddhist philosophy, and neuroscience, envisioned our everyday reality, the “explicate” order, to be a holographic projection of the “implicate” order, a deeper more fundamental reality. Bohm suggested that nature is imbued with meaning at all levels of complexity. This key insight suggests that, if meaning is enfolded within all matter and energy in the implicate order, neither mind and matter, nor object and subject, can be discrete. If the entire universe is organized according to meaning, then the universe is contextual and therefore subjective at all levels of reality.

  Information theory has shown us that information is physical and as real as atoms, and I believe its counterpart, meaning, though not physical, is just as real. These two aspects of nature are complementary and therefore can be joined into the Information/meaning complementarity. In this work, I propose that the Information/meaning complementarity is not just a convenient way to view the nature of reality; it is necessary to explain nature at its deepest levels.  

   Crop circles might well be a last desperate attempt by an alien civilization to alert and to avert a self-imposed civilization ending disaster. The message in the fields is immediate, concise, and fleeting, and it stares us in the face. In many respects the medium is the message. The formation itself is a physical manifestation of the relationship between background and foreground, between what is absent and what is apparent. Like consciousness itself, we can view the processes involved in the creation of crop formations as a complement of information and meaning. Crop formations, which manifest almost instantly, are an example of emergence, in that the complexity of what has emerged cannot be deduced in a step-by-step process of what preceded it. While analysis of formations is an important product of our inquisitive minds, the true magnificence of these formations in the field is a result of their essentially raw, unconscious meaning. The properties of emergence, consciousness, and the information/meaning complementarity constitute the message in the fields.

  Part II of the book includes step-by-step procedures for the investigation of crop formations.


Quantum Reality: A New Philosophical Perspective. (1994) Maecenas Press

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Price $14.00

Quantum Reality: A New Philosophical Perspective offers a uniquely non-technical perspective of twentieth century science with all of its philosophical implications.
The book begins with a brief history of the formulation of relativity theory and quantum theory, beginning at the turn of the century and proceeding to the present, taking the reader through several thought experiment, including the Schrodinger's cat experiment, the two-hole experiments, the photon experiment, and the famous EPR paradox, including its eventual resolution as a result of the ingenious theorem of John Stewart Bell. Several current theories dealing with the nature of reality are presented in this work, including Bohr's Copenhagen interpretation and the many-worlds interpretation. Each is carefully scrutinized and the fallacies enumerated culminating in a completely new philosophical perspective of reality.